MODERN

Art criticism analysis and description of Pierre-Auguste Renoir’s “Nude” painting
Parisians are born with all the shortcomings, but the wonderful fairy gives any flaw to their charm and enchantment. This fairy is grace. Heinrich Heine The painting “Naked” was written…

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Fake PICTURES
Fake paintings, as an imitation of the painting style and the plot of the work of a famous master for enrichment, has always existed. According to experts, the amount of…

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BATIK. CLASSIFICATION AND VARIETIES
Batik (batik) - the Indonesian word (tik - in Indonesian means “dot” or “drop”, and ba - cotton fabric). Batik is the common name for a variety of methods and…

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Linocut

Linocut got its name from linoleum material. Linoleum as a material for engraving originated in Europe, and at the beginning of the first decade of the 20th century in Russia. The first Russian artist to use linocut N.I. Sheverdyaev, and in this technique was a great success. Among those Russian artists who seriously engaged in linoleum and studied its technology, was I.N. Pavlov. In his prints, he exhaustively showed the tonal and textural capabilities of a new material for that time. The artist V.D. did a lot for the development of linocut Falileev. In his hand-printed engravings, he showed new uses for opaque oil paints, achieving remarkable effects that leave a great impression.

Engraving on linoleum was done by such artists as B.M. Kustodiev, M.V. Matorin, P.N. Staronosov, I.A. Continue reading

EXCLIBRES OF MASONS

For a long time, the construction of huge cathedrals continued in the Middle Ages. Builders settled in the immediate vicinity of the construction site, gradually entering into close relations with each other. Over time, these unions formed workshops. The rules for relations between members, the admission of new comrades, and the resolution of disputes were developed. A ceremony was also established for various occasions. The room where they stored their tools was called a lodge. Hence, the brotherhood of builders and their assemblies were called the “lodge”, and their members – free masons (free mason). Then the lodge became known as the main organizational unit of Freemasonry. As you know, the workshops were closed to people of other professions. But from the end of the 16th century, non-construction workers — “outside masons”, rich and scholars who had the idea to use building partnerships as the basis for creating secret isoteric societies – gained access there.

Masons carry out ritual ceremonies and, although there is no single Masonic ritual, many of them are very similar. For example, all Masons use in their rites the architectural symbolism of the tools of medieval masons, especially two of them – a square and a pair of compasses, which are always in the box. Masons should “verify their actions Continue reading

MODERN PORTRAIT EXCLIBRIS

Portrait bookplate – one of the oldest types of book characters – appeared after the stamp. The first engraved bookplate is considered the emblem of the knight Bernhardt von Rohrbach, made in 1460 by the German engraver Bartel Schön. The portrait ex-libris was not long in coming; the earliest surviving portrait ex-libris was made in 1498 for the Basel Bishop of Limberger. It is not necessary to doubt the time of appearance of this bookplate, it shows the date of its creation, no date was indicated on any of its predecessors.

The origin of portraiture dates back to ancient times. The oldest known attempt to portray a human face has 27 millennia, it was discovered in the cave of Villoner near the French city of Angouleme in the department of Charente. The word “portrait” originates from the outdated French word portraire – to write off someone’s image. The first who proposed to use the term “portrait” exclusively for “depicting a (concrete) human being” was the French art historian and official court historian of King Louis XIV Andre Felibien. Continue reading

Engraving Techniques

But circulation is only one of the properties of engraving. Engraving is a special kind of fine art and it has its own language, its aesthetics, its capabilities, which are distinct from other types of art. And to a very large extent this originality of the engraving is determined by its technological side.

In engraving, there are a huge number of species, subspecies, varieties of technology. They are born in certain epochs, often die off after several decades, transformed are reborn at another time. And all this diversity is designed to expand the expressive capabilities of engraving, to enrich its language. After all, engraving, in principle, has a much more limited range of means than, say, painting: a line and a tonal Continue reading

Engraving: concept, essence

Engraving is the youngest of the visual arts. If the origin of painting, sculpture, drawing, architecture is lost in prehistoric epochs, then the appearance of engraving is more or less accurately known to us: this is the turn of the XIV and XV centuries. In the East, in China, engraving arose much earlier, in the VIII century, but there it remained a local phenomenon that did not go beyond the borders of this country.

The origin of the art of engraving in Europe
Despite the fact that the main varieties of engraving have their own technological prototypes that existed in earlier times (for woodcuts these are stamps and seals, for incisors engravings this is the craft of goldsmiths, for etching – workshops of gunsmiths), engravings in the true sense of the word , as an imprint on paper of an image cut out on a special board, appears only in the XIV century. Continue reading

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Genres of painting in fine art
Animal studies (derived from the Latin. Animal - animal), animalistic genre - the genre of fine art, in which animals are the main subject of the image. Allegorical genre Allegorical…

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ANCIENT ENGLISH PAINTING, FAMOUS ENGLISH ARTISTS
Collectors of antique paintings are conservative in their passions. Of greatest interest are the Italian masters of the Renaissance, the old Dutch and German painters, French impressionists and some others.…

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ENGLISH ANTIQUE ENGRAVING, ENGLISH STYLE XVII-BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY.
The Origin of Engraving in England. Engraved English school is much younger than Italian, German or Dutch. The history of English engraving, apparently, should be from the end of the…

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VARIETIES OF FIGURE PAINTING
At the end of the 20th century, the term figurative art, figurative painting, began to be used in England. Figurative art - non-abstract paintings, subject painting - the antithesis of…

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