The history of the English landscape is a large and complex topic. And a special place in it is occupied by a talented artist – William Turner, whose deeply emotional art is much ahead of his time. Northumberland Coast William Turner
William Turner was born at the end of April 1775 in London. Already in childhood, the boy showed great drawing abilities. “The artist’s father proudly hung up his drawings in his barber shop and sold them for 2-3 shillings. These were first copies from then fashionable topographic views of picturesque places, castles, ruins, architectural monuments of London. The father regarded his son’s drawing lessons not as an empty entertainment, but as a fairly reliable source of extra money. ” At the end of the 18th century, topographical sketches were very popular in England, then translated into engravings, illustrating all kinds of guides and descriptions. On the recommendation of some artists who noticed the talented drawings of the boy, he was admitted to the Royal Academy in December 1789.
At the academy, he attended the last lectures of Reynolds, who had a significant influence on Turner. The young artist carefully studied the masters of the past and contemporary artists. Copying other people’s works, he creatively Continue reading
Painted varnishes are 30% solutions of resins in pinene, with the exception of kopalovy varnish, where kopalovy resin is dissolved in linseed oil. The following types of varnishes are available, used as additives to oil paints: mastic, dammar, pistachio, acrylic-pistachio and kopal.
Mastic varnish. 30% solution of mastic resin in pinene. Mastic varnish can serve not only as an additive to paints, but also by wiping the intermediate layers during layer-by-layer painting, replacing retouched varnish in this. Apply mastic varnish and as a cover for oil and tempera painting. Tends to turn a little yellow over time. Gives the work a glossy finish. Very elastic.
The varnish is damn. 30% solution of dammar resin in pinene with the addition of ethyl alcohol. Dammar varnish is used as an additive to paints and as a topcoat. During storage, it sometimes loses transparency, but Continue reading
Artistic paints consist of colored powder – a pigment and a binder that holds together the smallest particles. In painting, mainly inorganic coloring materials are used, as more persistent, less often organic.
There are pigments of natural origin and prepared artificially.
In ancient times, artists used exclusively dyes found in nature in the form of various minerals: malachite, azurite, auripigment, lapis lazuli (lapis lazuli) and all kinds of colored earths. In addition, they used dyes of organic origin, which were obtained from various plants and simple animal organisms – mollusks, worms.
But over time, many natural pigments were replaced by artificial ones. For example, blue ultramarine paint, which was valued more than gold (it was obtained from lapis lazuli minerals), was replaced in the 19th century by cheap artificial ultramarine.
Of the natural dyes, only earthy pigments have retained their value. They are usually mined when developing open pits. The produced rocks are dried, crushed and subjected to separation, separating the smallest particles. These pigments are durable, resistant to weathering, to light. They have not bright, but the most Continue reading