Engraving is the youngest of the visual arts. If the origin of painting, sculpture, drawing, architecture is lost in prehistoric epochs, then the appearance of engraving is more or less accurately known to us: this is the turn of the XIV and XV centuries. In the East, in China, engraving arose much earlier, in the VIII century, but there it remained a local phenomenon that did not go beyond the borders of this country.
The origin of the art of engraving in Europe
Despite the fact that the main varieties of engraving have their own technological prototypes that existed in earlier times (for woodcuts these are stamps and seals, for incisors engravings this is the craft of goldsmiths, for etching – workshops of gunsmiths), engravings in the true sense of the word , as an imprint on paper of an image cut out on a special board, appears only in the XIV century. Continue reading
From Italian, a palette knife is translated as a spatula. Palette knife allows you to create a complex and beautiful texture in the picture. Using a palette knife, you can mix paints on the palette, clean the palette, remove excess paint from the canvas or paint a picture.
Despite the fact that the palette knife is known as an instrument of modern painters, the tradition of its use originates from the Renaissance, from the works of Titian. Using a palette knife, some details were made on the canvases of Rembrandt and Francisco Goya.
Gustave Courbet became the first artist to actively use a palette knife. The artist described his method of work: “First I determine where the darkest colors in the picture will be, mark their location, apply them with a palette knife or a flat brush. Not a single detail is visible in the dark … then I apply less and less intense shades … I try to find them the place … then I put the halftone, and so on until the brightest, until Continue reading