BATIK. CLASSIFICATION AND VARIETIES
Batik (batik) - the Indonesian word (tik - in Indonesian means “dot” or “drop”, and ba - cotton fabric). Batik is the common name for a variety of methods and…

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LANDSCAPE GENRE VARIETIES
Landscape (from French paysage - country, locality) is a genre of fine art in which nature is the main subject of the image. As an independent genre, the landscape appeared…

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Fake PICTURES
Fake paintings, as an imitation of the painting style and the plot of the work of a famous master for enrichment, has always existed. According to experts, the amount of…

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past tense only

EXCLIBRES OF MASONS

For a long time, the construction of huge cathedrals continued in the Middle Ages. Builders settled in the immediate vicinity of the construction site, gradually entering into close relations with each other. Over time, these unions formed workshops. The rules for relations between members, the admission of new comrades, and the resolution of disputes were developed. A ceremony was also established for various occasions. The room where they stored their tools was called a lodge. Hence, the brotherhood of builders and their assemblies were called the “lodge”, and their members – free masons (free mason). Then the lodge became known as the main organizational unit of Freemasonry. As you know, the workshops were closed to people of other professions. But from the end of the 16th century, non-construction workers — “outside masons”, rich and scholars who had the idea to use building partnerships as the basis for creating secret isoteric societies – gained access there.

Masons carry out ritual ceremonies and, although there is no single Masonic ritual, many of them are very similar. For example, all Masons use in their rites the architectural symbolism of the tools of medieval masons, especially two of them – a square and a pair of compasses, which are always in the box. Masons should “verify their actions Continue reading

ENGLISH ANTIQUE ENGRAVING, ENGLISH STYLE XVII-BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY.
The Origin of Engraving in England. Engraved English school is much younger than Italian, German or Dutch. The history of English engraving, apparently, should be from the end of the…

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HISTORY OF SALE OF PAINTING ON AUCTIONS
The first market for fine arts was captured by commissioner pioneer former navy officer James Christie Sr.. Having arranged the first sale in 1766 in London, he soon already owned…

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TURNER JOSEPH MALLORD WILLIAM (1775-1851)
The history of the English landscape is a large and complex topic. And a special place in it is occupied by a talented artist - William Turner, whose deeply emotional…

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Imprimature - color tinting (tinting) of the soil or the first layer of the canvas.
Imprimatur is a simple and effective way to create color harmony in a painting. In thin-layer writing, the color of the soil, shining through the layers of paints, combines them…

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