The word pastel comes from the Italian word pasta – dough or pasta. The pastel is colored crayons from a finely ground mixture of coloring pigment, chalk or a special type of clay and a gum arabic binder.
Pastel occupies an intermediate position between painting and drawing. From a technological point of view, pastel is a graphic, and by its expressive capabilities, pastel can be attributed to painting.
Pastel crayons, consisting of dry colorful pigment bonded with acacia resin (gum arabic), was invented at the end of the 15th century by French artist Jean Perreal for quick sketches of the military company of Louis XI.
The artist introduced the new technique to Leonardo da Vinci, who named the new technique colorire a secco (dry-painted) and used it in a sketch for a portrait of Isabella d’Este Mantua (1499).
At the beginning of the XVI century, pastel took a strong place in European art life. At this time, a French pencil portrait was very popular, performed from nature with black chalk, sanguine and pastel in one or two sessions. The Italians called this combination of art materials a pastello. Continue reading
At the end of the 20th century, the term figurative art, figurative painting, began to be used in England.
Figurative art – non-abstract paintings, subject painting – the antithesis of abstractionism, avant-garde, pop art and conceptualism.
Figurative painting is a very broad concept, which includes a variety of genres, styles and directions.
In a narrower understanding, figurative painting is a painting in which the emphasis is on the depiction of figures of people and animals.
In the XVII century, the thematic or plot picture was attributed to the high genre (grand genre) and was called the genre.
The high genre included: allegorical, battle, epic, everyday, historical, mythological and religious genres.
In recent years, in Russia the concept of a thematic picture is increasingly replaced by the term figurative.
They began to call the figurative not only the plot compositions, but also all the works on which human figures are depicted. Continue reading