Painted varnishes are 30% solutions of resins in pinene, with the exception of kopalovy varnish, where kopalovy resin is dissolved in linseed oil. The following types of varnishes are available, used as additives to oil paints: mastic, dammar, pistachio, acrylic-pistachio and kopal.
Mastic varnish. 30% solution of mastic resin in pinene. Mastic varnish can serve not only as an additive to paints, but also by wiping the intermediate layers during layer-by-layer painting, replacing retouched varnish in this. Apply mastic varnish and as a cover for oil and tempera painting. Tends to turn a little yellow over time. Gives the work a glossy finish. Very elastic.
The varnish is damn. 30% solution of dammar resin in pinene with the addition of ethyl alcohol. Dammar varnish is used as an additive to paints and as a topcoat. During storage, it sometimes loses transparency, but Continue reading
Artistic paints consist of colored powder – a pigment and a binder that holds together the smallest particles. In painting, mainly inorganic coloring materials are used, as more persistent, less often organic.
There are pigments of natural origin and prepared artificially.
In ancient times, artists used exclusively dyes found in nature in the form of various minerals: malachite, azurite, auripigment, lapis lazuli (lapis lazuli) and all kinds of colored earths. In addition, they used dyes of organic origin, which were obtained from various plants and simple animal organisms – mollusks, worms.
But over time, many natural pigments were replaced by artificial ones. For example, blue ultramarine paint, which was valued more than gold (it was obtained from lapis lazuli minerals), was replaced in the 19th century by cheap artificial ultramarine.
Of the natural dyes, only earthy pigments have retained their value. They are usually mined when developing open pits. The produced rocks are dried, crushed and subjected to separation, separating the smallest particles. These pigments are durable, resistant to weathering, to light. They have not bright, but the most Continue reading
World painting boasts an impressive history of fakes. Such things have happened at all times and in all countries. And one of the funniest hoaxes happened half a century ago in Germany.
As it is known, lawsuits exposing counterfeiters are not uncommon. And any of them should start, the media must inform the on-call sensation, albeit already far from fresh: “75 million lime masterpieces circulate throughout Europe, and, according to experts, their number will increase every year!”
That’s after all what heights the falsifiers, mystifiers and other adventurers from art have reached! But it is unlikely they could be able to crank their scams so easily if there weren’t good “teachers” behind them Continue reading