The Origin of Engraving in England.
Engraved English school is much younger than Italian, German or Dutch. The history of English engraving, apparently, should be from the end of the 15th century. The first known engravings are in the Mirror of the World book, published in Westminster in 1480 by the English first printer, William Kexton. The illustrations in the book are made using the technique of wood engraving.
Subsequently, other techniques spread in England – copper engraving, woodcut. However, all the oldest engravings of the island were exclusively illustrations for books, were made at a very mediocre level and did not represent independent artistic value. Continue reading
Artistic paints consist of colored powder – a pigment and a binder that holds together the smallest particles. In painting, mainly inorganic coloring materials are used, as more persistent, less often organic.
There are pigments of natural origin and prepared artificially.
In ancient times, artists used exclusively dyes found in nature in the form of various minerals: malachite, azurite, auripigment, lapis lazuli (lapis lazuli) and all kinds of colored earths. In addition, they used dyes of organic origin, which were obtained from various plants and simple animal organisms – mollusks, worms.
But over time, many natural pigments were replaced by artificial ones. For example, blue ultramarine paint, which was valued more than gold (it was obtained from lapis lazuli minerals), was replaced in the 19th century by cheap artificial ultramarine.
Of the natural dyes, only earthy pigments have retained their value. They are usually mined when developing open pits. The produced rocks are dried, crushed and subjected to separation, separating the smallest particles. These pigments are durable, resistant to weathering, to light. They have not bright, but the most Continue reading
World painting boasts an impressive history of fakes. Such things have happened at all times and in all countries. And one of the funniest hoaxes happened half a century ago in Germany.
As it is known, lawsuits exposing counterfeiters are not uncommon. And any of them should start, the media must inform the on-call sensation, albeit already far from fresh: “75 million lime masterpieces circulate throughout Europe, and, according to experts, their number will increase every year!”
That’s after all what heights the falsifiers, mystifiers and other adventurers from art have reached! But it is unlikely they could be able to crank their scams so easily if there weren’t good “teachers” behind them Continue reading