PAINT VARNISHES
Painted varnishes are 30% solutions of resins in pinene, with the exception of kopalovy varnish, where kopalovy resin is dissolved in linseed oil. The following types of varnishes are available,…

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VARIETIES OF GENRE STILL LIFE
Still life (from the French. Nature morte - dead, inanimate nature) - an artistic image of various household items. In the XV-XVI centuries, a still life was considered as part…

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ANCIENT ENGLISH PAINTING, FAMOUS ENGLISH ARTISTS
Collectors of antique paintings are conservative in their passions. Of greatest interest are the Italian masters of the Renaissance, the old Dutch and German painters, French impressionists and some others.…

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EXCLIBRES OF MASONS

For a long time, the construction of huge cathedrals continued in the Middle Ages. Builders settled in the immediate vicinity of the construction site, gradually entering into close relations with each other. Over time, these unions formed workshops. The rules for relations between members, the admission of new comrades, and the resolution of disputes were developed. A ceremony was also established for various occasions. The room where they stored their tools was called a lodge. Hence, the brotherhood of builders and their assemblies were called the “lodge”, and their members – free masons (free mason). Then the lodge became known as the main organizational unit of Freemasonry. As you know, the workshops were closed to people of other professions. But from the end of the 16th century, non-construction workers — “outside masons”, rich and scholars who had the idea to use building partnerships as the basis for creating secret isoteric societies – gained access there.

Masons carry out ritual ceremonies and, although there is no single Masonic ritual, many of them are very similar. For example, all Masons use in their rites the architectural symbolism of the tools of medieval masons, especially two of them – a square and a pair of compasses, which are always in the box. Masons should “verify their actions Continue reading

ENGLISH ANTIQUE ENGRAVING, ENGLISH STYLE XVII-BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY.

The Origin of Engraving in England.
Engraved English school is much younger than Italian, German or Dutch. The history of English engraving, apparently, should be from the end of the 15th century. The first known engravings are in the Mirror of the World book, published in Westminster in 1480 by the English first printer, William Kexton. The illustrations in the book are made using the technique of wood engraving.

Subsequently, other techniques spread in England – copper engraving, woodcut. However, all the oldest engravings of the island were exclusively illustrations for books, were made at a very mediocre level and did not represent independent artistic value. Continue reading

COURSE CASES OF SALES OF PICTURES AT AUCTIONS

Today, no one can guarantee 100 percent authenticity of certain art objects.
Auction house Sotheby’s gives a guarantee on the authenticity of a work of art for two years.
Often, the quality of fakes exceeds the level of expertise.
A joke is popular among art historians: “… Do you guarantee that this picture is genuine? – Of course. The guarantee is two years …”

Sunflowers 4. Vincent van Gogh
Sunflowers Vincent Van Gogh.
The picture of the famous Dutchman “Sunflowers”, sold for almost $ 40 million at Christie’s auction, turned out to Continue reading

Fine art techniques
Watercolor (from Italian. Aquarello) - means painting with water-based paints. Watercolor is one of the most difficult painting techniques. The apparent simplicity and ease of watercolor painting is deceiving. Watercolor…

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LESSON AQUARIUS. SEASCAPE
The best way to understand the watercolor technique is to start with a seascape. Even if you do not have experience, it does not matter. There are ready-made solutions in…

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TAPESTRY. CLASSIFICATION AND VARIETIES
The art of hand weaving is one of the oldest forms of decorative art. Each country and era made its changes in technology, interpretation of images and applied value of…

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PRINT. CLASSIFICATION AND VARIETIES
An engraving (from French estampe) is a generalized name for works of printed graphics, which is an engraving or any other print on paper from a printing form. There are…

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