For a long time, the construction of huge cathedrals continued in the Middle Ages. Builders settled in the immediate vicinity of the construction site, gradually entering into close relations with each other. Over time, these unions formed workshops. The rules for relations between members, the admission of new comrades, and the resolution of disputes were developed. A ceremony was also established for various occasions. The room where they stored their tools was called a lodge. Hence, the brotherhood of builders and their assemblies were called the “lodge”, and their members – free masons (free mason). Then the lodge became known as the main organizational unit of Freemasonry. As you know, the workshops were closed to people of other professions. But from the end of the 16th century, non-construction workers — “outside masons”, rich and scholars who had the idea to use building partnerships as the basis for creating secret isoteric societies – gained access there.
Masons carry out ritual ceremonies and, although there is no single Masonic ritual, many of them are very similar. For example, all Masons use in their rites the architectural symbolism of the tools of medieval masons, especially two of them – a square and a pair of compasses, which are always in the box. Masons should “verify their actions Continue reading
SIMONETTA VESDUCHI (SIMONETTA DEI CATTANEY)
Beloved Sandro Botticelli
The wife of Marco Vespucci, whose brother, Amerigo, gave his name to America, discovered by Christopher Columbus.
The great artist Sandro Botticelli immortalized the beauty of Simonetta on his canvases. She is depicted in the center of almost every one of them, be it the Birth of Venus, Spring, or Adoration of the Magi. Behind each female appearance one can feel the only – the appearance of Simonetta, in whom he was hopelessly and unrequitedly in love.
Simonetta herself never saw his paintings – she died on April 26, 1476. She was no more than 23 years old. Sandro Botticelli will be buried at the feet of Simonetta 34 years after her death.
Sandro Botticelli Paintings
Elena Fourman. Peter Paul Rubens
ELENA FOURMEN Continue reading
Theft of works of art is a popular crime. Typically, masterpieces are stolen in order to:
further resale (mainly this does not apply to masterpieces, since they are difficult to resell).
get a ransom from a museum, state or insurance company (artning).
under the order for “black collectors”.
Mona Lisa. Leonardo da Vinci
Theft of Leonardo Da Vinci’s “Mona Lisa”.
On August 21, 1911, the painting was stolen by an employee of the Louvre, the Italian master of mirrors Vincenzo Perugia.
A year earlier, the director of the Louvre, Theofil Omol (who had resigned shortly after the theft), stated that the assassination of Mona Lisa was just as likely as an attempt to steal the bells of Notre Dame.
The purpose of this abduction is not clear. Perhaps Perugia wanted to return the “Mona Lisa” to its historical Continue reading