For a long time, the construction of huge cathedrals continued in the Middle Ages. Builders settled in the immediate vicinity of the construction site, gradually entering into close relations with each other. Over time, these unions formed workshops. The rules for relations between members, the admission of new comrades, and the resolution of disputes were developed. A ceremony was also established for various occasions. The room where they stored their tools was called a lodge. Hence, the brotherhood of builders and their assemblies were called the “lodge”, and their members – free masons (free mason). Then the lodge became known as the main organizational unit of Freemasonry. As you know, the workshops were closed to people of other professions. But from the end of the 16th century, non-construction workers — “outside masons”, rich and scholars who had the idea to use building partnerships as the basis for creating secret isoteric societies – gained access there.
Masons carry out ritual ceremonies and, although there is no single Masonic ritual, many of them are very similar. For example, all Masons use in their rites the architectural symbolism of the tools of medieval masons, especially two of them – a square and a pair of compasses, which are always in the box. Masons should “verify their actions Continue reading
The Origin of Engraving in England.
Engraved English school is much younger than Italian, German or Dutch. The history of English engraving, apparently, should be from the end of the 15th century. The first known engravings are in the Mirror of the World book, published in Westminster in 1480 by the English first printer, William Kexton. The illustrations in the book are made using the technique of wood engraving.
Subsequently, other techniques spread in England – copper engraving, woodcut. However, all the oldest engravings of the island were exclusively illustrations for books, were made at a very mediocre level and did not represent independent artistic value. Continue reading
A brush is nothing more than a simple tool to help an artist complete his plan. But as with every tool with brushes, you must also be able to handle.
First, let’s get acquainted with the brush device, which is common to almost all types. Art brushes consist of three main parts: a hair bundle, a metal clip (capsule) and a wooden handle. The hair bundle, the actual working part of the brush, is natural or synthetic hair, collected in a bundle of a certain shape and size. The clip serves to shape, preserve the beam and connect it to the handle. The clip is made of metal and other materials. Seamless clips are the most convenient to use and outwardly more attractive. A good quality pen can only be made of hardwood hardwood (beech, birch, etc.). Continue reading