For a long time, the construction of huge cathedrals continued in the Middle Ages. Builders settled in the immediate vicinity of the construction site, gradually entering into close relations with each other. Over time, these unions formed workshops. The rules for relations between members, the admission of new comrades, and the resolution of disputes were developed. A ceremony was also established for various occasions. The room where they stored their tools was called a lodge. Hence, the brotherhood of builders and their assemblies were called the “lodge”, and their members – free masons (free mason). Then the lodge became known as the main organizational unit of Freemasonry. As you know, the workshops were closed to people of other professions. But from the end of the 16th century, non-construction workers — “outside masons”, rich and scholars who had the idea to use building partnerships as the basis for creating secret isoteric societies – gained access there.
Masons carry out ritual ceremonies and, although there is no single Masonic ritual, many of them are very similar. For example, all Masons use in their rites the architectural symbolism of the tools of medieval masons, especially two of them – a square and a pair of compasses, which are always in the box. Masons should “verify their actions Continue reading
The first market for fine arts was captured by commissioner pioneer former navy officer James Christie Sr.. Having arranged the first sale in 1766 in London, he soon already owned a room with a specially built auction room for him. Christie owed her heyday to the 1848 revolution, which marked the “era of great sales.” It is believed that it was Christie who turned the trade in antiques into art – the largest auctions of the 18th and 19th centuries were held here. And by the way, none other than James Christie himself acted as an intermediary in a deal to sell the collection of paintings by Sir Robert Walpole to the Russian Empress Catherine II. The purchased collection of works of art became the basis of the future Hermitage Museum.
The founder of Sotheby’s was book seller Samuel Baker, who held his first auction in 1744 in London and published the first book catalog with fixed prices. In 1754, Baker opened a permanent auction house. For a century, Baker and his successors specialized exclusively in books and were the organizers of the auction of all famous libraries, including the libraries of Prince Talleyrand, the Dukes of York and Buckingham, and the Napoleon Library, which the emperor took with him to exile on St. Helena. Continue reading
The best way to understand the watercolor technique is to start with a seascape. Even if you do not have experience, it does not matter. There are ready-made solutions in order to master the technique of watercolor.
There are hundreds of examples of how people, without having an art education, I began to create beautiful works of art. Something turned on inside them, and they began to realize hidden abilities, found themselves.
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I offer you a series of watercolor lessons that will make your progress towards mastery quick and effective. To do this, you can subscribe to my free course in watercolor painting, the first classes of which will be devoted to MARINE Continue reading