The Origin of Engraving in England.
Engraved English school is much younger than Italian, German or Dutch. The history of English engraving, apparently, should be from the end of the 15th century. The first known engravings are in the Mirror of the World book, published in Westminster in 1480 by the English first printer, William Kexton. The illustrations in the book are made using the technique of wood engraving.
Subsequently, other techniques spread in England – copper engraving, woodcut. However, all the oldest engravings of the island were exclusively illustrations for books, were made at a very mediocre level and did not represent independent artistic value. Continue reading
Theft of works of art is a popular crime. Typically, masterpieces are stolen in order to:
further resale (mainly this does not apply to masterpieces, since they are difficult to resell).
get a ransom from a museum, state or insurance company (artning).
under the order for “black collectors”.
Mona Lisa. Leonardo da Vinci
Theft of Leonardo Da Vinci’s “Mona Lisa”.
On August 21, 1911, the painting was stolen by an employee of the Louvre, the Italian master of mirrors Vincenzo Perugia.
A year earlier, the director of the Louvre, Theofil Omol (who had resigned shortly after the theft), stated that the assassination of Mona Lisa was just as likely as an attempt to steal the bells of Notre Dame.
The purpose of this abduction is not clear. Perhaps Perugia wanted to return the “Mona Lisa” to its historical Continue reading
The word pastel comes from the Italian word pasta – dough or pasta. The pastel is colored crayons from a finely ground mixture of coloring pigment, chalk or a special type of clay and a gum arabic binder.
Pastel occupies an intermediate position between painting and drawing. From a technological point of view, pastel is a graphic, and by its expressive capabilities, pastel can be attributed to painting.
Pastel crayons, consisting of dry colorful pigment bonded with acacia resin (gum arabic), was invented at the end of the 15th century by French artist Jean Perreal for quick sketches of the military company of Louis XI.
The artist introduced the new technique to Leonardo da Vinci, who named the new technique colorire a secco (dry-painted) and used it in a sketch for a portrait of Isabella d’Este Mantua (1499).
At the beginning of the XVI century, pastel took a strong place in European art life. At this time, a French pencil portrait was very popular, performed from nature with black chalk, sanguine and pastel in one or two sessions. The Italians called this combination of art materials a pastello. Continue reading