GENRES IN CHINESE ART
Go-hua traditional Chinese painting is considered to be close in spirit and used tools to calligraphy.
In China, mascara tiles, which are ground with water to the desired consistency, as well as water-based paints with mineral and vegetable pigments, are used as a color carrier.
Silk, cotton fabric, sometimes paper is used as the basis of the picture. To paint use brushes made of bamboo and wool of domestic or wild animals.
The color scheme of traditional Chinese painting is laconic and consists of three, four discreet colors, rich tonal transitions of the same color, usually the color of black mascara. The white color of the sheet or fabric creates a conditional airspace and is the current color, and not the emptiness of an unfilled field.
Artists create a harmonious and poetic world of nature, plants, animals and birds, using the basic stylistic techniques that have developed over many centuries. The main styles of traditional painting are gunbi (thorough brush) and sei (rough brush). Gunbi technique is characterized by thoroughness and accuracy in writing details, a clear drawing of the elements of the picture. In the sei technique, the artist is more concerned with conveying an emotional, emotional mood than with accurately conveying details.
Zhen u hua portrait genre
Zhen u hua (translated from Chinese. Man and flowers) – a genre of Chinese painting, depicting a portrait of a person or people against the backdrop of nature.
The image of a person can be considered the first genre in Chinese painting. The background for him often served as the surrounding nature.
Gradually from the genre, Zhen Hua stood out as an independent landscape genre, which took the leading role in Chinese painting.
Shidafu-hua portrait genre of dignitaries Shidafu-hua – painting of dignitaries and aristocrats.
Chun hua (translated from China. Spring / love / passionate picture) – erotic images from representing half-naked and nude to frank pornography.
Shan shui mountains and water
Shan Shui (translated from Chinese mountains and water) is a genre of Chinese painting depicting mountains and waterfalls.
Mountains and water in the minds of the Chinese embodied the most important forces of the universe – energy and peace, activity and passivity. The early appearance of the landscape in Chinese art is associated with a special relationship of man to nature.
In traditional Chinese painting, nature is a subject of study and contemplation. The artist turns to nature, but never copies it. It creates the harmony of the world, which consists of the unity of water, air, stone.
From a bird’s-eye view, with conventional space expanding vertically or horizontally and with a high horizon, powerful mountains are visible along which rivers flow down, or which are buried in a translucent haze of fog. Man is small and insignificant, but he is inextricably linked with nature and in the works you can see a small figure or human dwellings.
Contemporary Chinese art criticism divides the landscape genre into beifang-shanshui-huapai (northern landscape direction), nanfan-shanshui-huapai (southern landscape direction) and jiannan-shanshui-huapai (jiannan landscape direction).
Hua nyao birds and flowers
Hua-niao (translated from Chinese. Flowers and birds) is a genre of Chinese painting depicting birds and flowers.
Flowers and birds are characterized by themes from the life of plants, birds, and insects. Artists of this direction in their paintings conveyed their feelings and perceptions of the world, not only with the help of specific artistic solutions, but also through the symbolic meanings of various representatives of flora and fauna.
So, a special place in this genre was occupied by the image of the “four perfect ones” (wild plum meihua, bamboo, pine and chrysanthemum), which symbolized pure noble people whose friendship and mutual support passed all the tests.
Chrysanthemum is a symbol of exalted loneliness. A pine personifies Confucian restraint and firmness, longevity; lotus – a symbol of inner purity, etc.
Thus, the paintings of the genre of flowers and birds were almost always filled with hidden symbolic meaning.
Mo-ju painting bamboo
Mo-chu (translated from Chinese. Bamboo painting) is a genre of Chinese painting depicting bamboo (from a whole plant to several branches or leaves).
Mo-ju is one of the most significant stylistic-thematic areas of the genre of flowers and birds.
Bamboo in Chinese paintings is a symbol of inflexibility and stamina, a person of high moral qualities.
The authentic history of bamboo painting can be traced back to the works of Wen Tong (1018-1079).
An appeal to bamboo painting was evidence of the achievement of the peaks of painting mastery, because all the methods of working with a brush known in Chinese painting and calligraphy should have been used in the drawing. The bamboo trunk was to be performed in the style of Zhuangshu (print style), the bend of the trunk with strokes made in lichen (official style), the branches in cursive Tsaoshu, the leaves in kaisha.