ANCIENT ENGLISH PAINTING, FAMOUS ENGLISH ARTISTS
Collectors of antique paintings are conservative in their passions. Of greatest interest are the Italian masters of the Renaissance, the old Dutch and German painters, French impressionists and some others.…

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BATIK. CLASSIFICATION AND VARIETIES
Batik (batik) - the Indonesian word (tik - in Indonesian means “dot” or “drop”, and ba - cotton fabric). Batik is the common name for a variety of methods and…

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HOW TO TENSION CANVAS ON A FRAME
FRAME The stretcher serves as the basis for stretching the canvas. Subframes are of 2 types: modular (prefabricated, wedge) and deaf. Modular (prefabricated, wedge) subframes can be bought in almost…

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PALETTE KNIFE

From Italian, a palette knife is translated as a spatula. Palette knife allows you to create a complex and beautiful texture in the picture. Using a palette knife, you can mix paints on the palette, clean the palette, remove excess paint from the canvas or paint a picture.
Despite the fact that the palette knife is known as an instrument of modern painters, the tradition of its use originates from the Renaissance, from the works of Titian. Using a palette knife, some details were made on the canvases of Rembrandt and Francisco Goya.
Gustave Courbet became the first artist to actively use a palette knife. The artist described his method of work: “First I determine where the darkest colors in the picture will be, mark their location, apply them with a palette knife or a flat brush. Not a single detail is visible in the dark … then I apply less and less intense shades … I try to find them the place … then I put the halftone, and so on until the brightest, until everything shines. I have less light than the romantics … And if I managed to accurately capture … the work suddenly begins to radiate, and the light goes where it should … if I got it right, right feel oval…”
M. Claude described the process of Gustave Courbet’s work: “… he took with a knife from a box filled with paints white, yellow, red, blue paints. He mixed them on a palette, then he laid them out with a knife on a canvas and smeared them with confident and strong blows …”
Paul Cezanne described the unusual technique of Courbet: “He puts the paint like plasterer spanks with alabaster! He is a real paint grinder. He works like a Roman masons. But at the same time he is a real artist. Nobody can compare with him in our century. He belongs to museums. ”
Cézanne himself subsequently often used a palette knife, but he worked even faster and more aggressively. Camille Pissarro and Henri Matisse experimented a lot with the palette knife.

WHAT TO DO ATTENTION WHEN PURCHASING A MACHINE?
Palette knife for a palette is different from a palette knife for creating a painting. The palette knife for a palette is flat, without bending near the handle, with sharp edges.
The quality of the palette knife offered by major manufacturers is about the same.
When choosing a palette knife, it is important to pay attention to the blade, it must be flexible and spring well.
It is also worth paying attention to the handle, it should be comfortable, free from defects and have a reliable connection with the blade.
If you did not have experience with a palette knife, then first purchase a plastic or inexpensive version of the palette knife and experiment with it.
Palette knife

SHAPES AND PURPOSES FOR WHICH THEY ARE USED
The different shape of the knife allows you to achieve various effects. A palette knife is ideal for creating textures using the impasto technique, or for applying flat layers of paint when working on large-scale canvases.

Narrow palette knife is characterized by increased flexibility, they can apply thin lines, small or dot strokes.

A wide palette knife is suitable for creating relief of large objects or working with the background.

It is convenient to apply paint with a rectangular palette knife evenly.

A short-blade spatula is suitable for applying corner strokes, small strokes or prescribing small parts.

Long blades are convenient for a sweeping style of writing or for easy application of paint to large areas. For example, narrow long blades can beautifully depict the expanse of water.

It is convenient to make smears of different widths with a diamond-shaped palette knife.

The oval shape of the palette knife is well suited for textured brush strokes.

A figured, fan or ribbed palette knife is used to create a beautiful texture for decorative work.

HOW TO USE THE MACHINE?
The technique of working with a palette knife is very different from the technique of painting with a brush, it is very similar to spreading oil on a sandwich. With the tip of a palette knife, a little paint is taken from the palette, then the side of the blade smears the paint on the canvas or slightly presses it into the canvas.

WHAT SHOULD NOT BE DONE WHEN WORKING WITH THE MACHINE?
You can work with a palette knife only with fresh paint on a wet or dry basis. When the paint begins to dry, an attempt to apply another layer over the dried layer may cause the painting to be damaged.
An excessively thick paint layer may crack or warp when dried.

WHAT PAINTS ARE SUITABLE FOR WORK WITH THE MACHINE?
For work with a palette knife, it is best to use oil paint or thick acrylic paint. Acrylic paint can be made thick if you add texture paste to it.

CARE OF THE MACHINE
If turpentine is needed to wash the brushes, then no solvents are needed to clean the palette knife, just wipe it with a damp cloth at the end of work.

BATIK. CLASSIFICATION AND VARIETIES
Batik (batik) - the Indonesian word (tik - in Indonesian means “dot” or “drop”, and ba - cotton fabric). Batik is the common name for a variety of methods and…

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FROM HISTORY OF Fakes
From several biographical sources it is known that Michelangelo forged ancient Roman sculptures. He created a new marble sculpture, then smashed it, buried it in the garden and after some…

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THE MOST ANCIENT WALL PAINTED
LIST OF CAVES OF ALTAMIR In 1879, in the Altamira cave in northern Spain, in the province of Santander, wall paintings from the Paleolithic era were first discovered. Scientists have…

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TURNER JOSEPH MALLORD WILLIAM (1775-1851)
The history of the English landscape is a large and complex topic. And a special place in it is occupied by a talented artist - William Turner, whose deeply emotional…

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