GENRES IN JAPANESE ART
Japanese painting is one of the oldest and most beautiful in the world. Japanese art had a great influence on European painting.
Japanese Ukiyo-e woodcuts (paintings of a changing world) were especially popular in Europe and gave impetus to the emergence of Art Nouveau and Impressionism styles.
The appearance of Japaneseism is noted in the works of Vincent Van Gogh, Claude Monet and others. Van Gogh kept about 400 Japanese prints and has his works copied from the woodcut of the famous Utagawa Hiroshige “Kameid Plum Orchard” and “Sudden Rain over the Shin-Ohashi Bridge on the Ataka River” . In their collections, ukiyo-e had Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri Matisse, James Whistler, Eduard Manet, Edgar Degas, Emil Zola.
At the end of the 19th century, researcher A.V. Vysheslavtsev brought several Japanese prints and albums from a trip around the world, which aroused interest in this unusual art, and in 1898 the first exhibition of prints was held in St. Petersburg. Acquaintance with her influenced the work of a number of Russian artists: Ivan Bilibin, Konstantin Somov, Anna Ostroumova-Lebedeva, Dmitry Mitrokhin, Orest Vereisky, etc.
“After Dürer, the Japanese had a great influence on me … The simplification of their style, the brevity and swiftness of artistic perception and its embodiment always struck me in Japanese engraving … My comrades were even more interested in Japanese art, and each of them sought to assemble for himself a good collection of prints … “(Anna Ostroumova-Lebedeva)
The history of Japanese painting can be divided into several periods according to techniques and features.
At first, during the period of dominance of Chinese art, the technique of Japanese painting was based on the technique of the Kano school.
Then, at the Imperial Academy of Arts, a school of Japanese Yamato-e painting appeared, which replaced the pro-Chinese style of kara-e. The characteristic features of the masters of this school are the ornamental forms of clouds, parallel perspective techniques. The Yamato-e school has had a strong impact on the ukiyo-e schools.
Abuna-e Abuna-e is an erotic genre in which portrayed partially naked women involved in daily activities (bathing, washing hair, etc.).
The paintings often depicted a sudden gust of wind, a small child or animals that pulled a woman by her clothes, exposing her legs, hips or chest.
It is believed that abuna-e was created in 1772, after the government banned the shunga genre.
Bijin-ha. Courtesan Matsukase from Yamashiroi with satellites. Isoda Koryusai
Bijin-ga – a genre depicting the female beauty of a Japanese woman, the most popular ukiyo-e genre.
Most often, in engravings, you could see the inhabitants of the Yoshiwara fun quarter: geishas, courtesans, and simply famous beautiful women.
Bunding. Portrait of Takami Senseki. Watanabe Kazan
Bundinga – painting by scientists – a genre depicting educated people, the direction of the Hang school.
Formed in the XVIII century under the influence of the Chinese Southern Wenzhenhui school.
Dzimbutsuga Dzimbutsuga – portraiture and genre painting – a genre borrowed from Chinese artists.
Kate-ha. Peacock. Bayrei Kono Kate-ga – birds and flowers – a genre of landscape painting borrowed from Chinese artists.
The basic rule was to depict two different species of birds or flowers.
Kodam-oe Kodam-oe – the image of children.
Musya-e Musya-e – portraits of famous samurai.
Real historical figures, chronicles and participants of medieval wars were depicted.
Meisho-e. Image of ferries on the Fuji River in the province of Suruga. Utagawa Hiroshige Meisho-e – the image of famous places famous for its beauty – one of the two main varieties of the Yamato-e style.
Nise-e. Portrait of Minamoto no Yoritomo. Fujiwara Takanobu Nise-e – realistic portraits of celebrities, the founders of the teachings – a variation of the Yamato-e style
Okubi-e. Secret love. Kitagawa Utamaro Okubi-e – large heads – a genre in which a girl’s head was depicted close-up, a variation of the bijin-ga genre.
Ogi-e. Evening rain in Matsushima. Utagawa Hiroshige Ogi-e – Image for fans.
Omotya-e. Utagawa Yoshifuji Omotya-e – pictures-toys – images for teaching children.
Sansuiga. Early spring. Go Xi Sansuig – mountains and water – a genre of landscape painting borrowed from Chinese artists.
Japanese artists began to paint landscapes of sansuig since the 15th century.
Shiki-e. Prince Genji is enjoying the snow. Utagawa Hiroshige
Shiki-e is a genre depicting the four seasons.
Shigaziku. Catching catfish with a gourd. Josetsu Shigaziku – poetry painting – a genre combining equivalent components: painting, poetry and calligraphy.
Shigazika was made on vertical scrolls – in the upper part they wrote poems related to the plot of the picture, in the lower part they painted a landscape in the genre of mountains and water.
Sumo-e. Sumo wrestlers Kajigahama and Sekinoto and referee Kimura Shonosuke. Katsukawa Shunsyo Sumo-e is a genre depicting sumo wrestlers.
Sung Sung – spring paintings – an erotic genre of Japanese woodcut style of ukiyo-e, depicting very frank intimate scenes.
It is believed that the founders of the genre were illustrations from Chinese medical supplies.