EXCLIBRES OF MASONS
For a long time, the construction of huge cathedrals continued in the Middle Ages. Builders settled in the immediate vicinity of the construction site, gradually entering into close relations with…

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OIL PAINT
Artistic paints consist of colored powder - a pigment and a binder that holds together the smallest particles. In painting, mainly inorganic coloring materials are used, as more persistent, less…

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Imprimature - color tinting (tinting) of the soil or the first layer of the canvas.
Imprimatur is a simple and effective way to create color harmony in a painting. In thin-layer writing, the color of the soil, shining through the layers of paints, combines them…

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MODERN PORTRAIT EXCLIBRIS

Portrait bookplate – one of the oldest types of book characters – appeared after the stamp. The first engraved bookplate is considered the emblem of the knight Bernhardt von Rohrbach, made in 1460 by the German engraver Bartel Schön. The portrait ex-libris was not long in coming; the earliest surviving portrait ex-libris was made in 1498 for the Basel Bishop of Limberger. It is not necessary to doubt the time of appearance of this bookplate, it shows the date of its creation, no date was indicated on any of its predecessors.

The origin of portraiture dates back to ancient times. The oldest known attempt to portray a human face has 27 millennia, it was discovered in the cave of Villoner near the French city of Angouleme in the department of Charente. The word “portrait” originates from the outdated French word portraire – to write off someone’s image. The first who proposed to use the term “portrait” exclusively for “depicting a (concrete) human being” was the French art historian and official court historian of King Louis XIV Andre Felibien.

The portrait genre in Russia has its own history. The earliest images of specific individuals in Russian culture include a miniature representing the son of Yaroslav the Wise Grand Duke of Kiev Svyatoslav Yaroslavovich with his family (“Svyatoslav Izbornik”, 1073). The first Russian portrait images of specific personalities only reached the beginning of the 17th century, only during this period a decisive step was taken from the icon-painting to the individual person.

A breakthrough in the portrait genre of Russia, as in many other industries, occurred during the time of Peter the Great, and the appearance of a book sign in Russia is also associated with the name of Peter I. If the first book signs in Western Europe appeared shortly after the invention of printing in the middle of the 15th century by Johannes Guttenberg, then it took centuries for Russia to integrate the bookplate organically with the book. In total illiterate Russia, where the first book was published only in 1564, the bookplate was out of the question. Centuries will pass before Russian culture becomes a book culture in its spiritual basis. Only under Peter I will the first private libraries appear, and their owners will have book signs. The earliest bookplates are considered to belong to the associates of Peter I – D.M. Golitsyn, Ya.V. Bryus and R. Areskin.

Portrait bookplate in the 18th-19th centuries was extremely rare in Russia; the bookplate was dominated here, later font, monogram and plot. In the Russian iconographic bookplate, noticeable changes occurred at the beginning of the twentieth century, new faces appeared that had not previously appeared in the small schedule. These are portraits of A.S. Pushkin, the first printer of Ivan Fedorov, Empress Catherine II, the monk of the Kiev Pechersk Monastery Nestor the Chronicler, the Jewish politician Theodor Herzl, theatrical actor M.S.Schepkin, the Italian poet Dante Alighieri, the doctor, the creator of Esperanto Ludwik Zamengo French microbiologist Louis Pasteur.

On some bookplates of the early twentieth century, you can see portraits of sign owners – historian and book scholar, academician NP Likhachev; Krasnoyarsk merchant, gold producer and owner of a unique library G.V. Yudin; feuilletonist and theater critic V.M.Doroshevich; art critic and art critic P.D. Ettinger; architect M.I.Roslavlev and others.

A.P. Ostroumova-Lebedeva, L.O. Pasternak, A.N. Leo, V.N. Masyutin and other Russian artists worked in the iconographic bookplate of the early twentieth century.

The new heyday of the domestic bookplate falls already on the post-revolutionary era and is associated with new names and social conditions. Portrait bookplate took a special place in the collection of the national book sign, became very popular and widespread. Its subjects are diverse, here is the extensive bookplate of Leninian; and portrait bookplates dedicated to Russian and foreign writers, musicians and artists; and graphic miniatures dedicated to public and political figures; portrait space and sports bookplate; book signs of luminaries of domestic and world culture.
The main theme in the Soviet portrait book sign was the Leninist theme, it is extremely extensive and rich in material. For decades, the Leninist theme has remained the focus of attention of several generations of artists. During the life of V.I. Lenin, book signs with his image were not fulfilled. The first portrait of Lenin’s ex-libris is a sign made in 1925 for the Leningrad city library named after V.I. Lenin P.A.Shillingovsky, then the works of T.F. Belotsvetova for the Red Navy G.Seleznev, G.I. University, S.B.Telingater for the author of the book “Red Devils” N. Blyakhin and N. P. Dmitrevsky for a member of the board of the State Publishing House of the RSFSR G.Z. Litvin-Molotov.

The best Soviet graphic artists E.N. Golyakhovsky, G.A. Kravtsov, E.N. Tihanovich, A.I.Kalashnikov, P.Lukhtein, V.I.Kasyan, V.A. Frolov, K .FROM

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