LANDSCAPE GENRE VARIETIES
Landscape (from French paysage – country, locality) is a genre of fine art in which nature is the main subject of the image.
As an independent genre, the landscape appeared already in the VI century in Chinese art. The traditions of Chinese landscape painting have had a great influence on Japanese art.
In Europe, landscape as a separate genre appeared much later than in China and Japan. In the Middle Ages, when only religious compositions had the right to exist, the landscape was interpreted by painters as an image of the characters’ habitat.
Gradually, the landscape went beyond other art genres. This was facilitated by the development of easel painting. In the creation of the landscape genre, the masters of the Venetian school at the beginning of the 16th century played a large role.
In Russian art, landscape as a genre of painting arises at the end of the 18th century. The founder of the Russian landscape is considered to be Semyon Shchedrin (1745-1804).
The heyday of landscape painting marked the development of a plein air landscape, associated with the invention in the 19th century of a method for the production of tube paints.
Architectural landscape – a landscape in which the artist focuses on the image of architectural monuments in a synthesis with the environment
The architectural landscape was widespread in the XVIII century.
Paintings architectural landscape
Veduta is a genre of 18th-century Venetian painting, which depicts a cityscape in the form of a panorama, in compliance with scale and proportions.
The great representative of this style in painting is the Venetian artist Antonio Canaletto (1697-1768).
In Russia, the founders of the architectural lead were the painters F.Ya. Alekseev, M.N. Vorobyov, S.F. Shchedrin.
Veduta landscape paintings
Heroic landscape Heroic landscape – a landscape in which the grandeur of the universe is shown, nature seems majestic and inaccessible to man.
Spectators who looked at the heroic landscape should be content with the role of contemplators, enjoying the image and perfecting their minds.
French painter Nicola Poussin is the founder of a heroic landscape.
The Dutch landscape was first born in the works of such masters of Haarlem as Van Goyen, De Moylene and Van Reisdal.
Most Dutch landscapes are characterized by a muted color, consisting of light silver, olive-ocher, brownish shades, close to the natural colors of nature.
The Dutch were the first to portray individual motifs of nature, often conveying views of a particular area. In contrast to the landscape painters of the academic direction, who embodied the images of nature in a conditionally ideal aspect, the masters of the Dutch landscape convey the modest nature of Holland as it is, without embellishing it.
Dutch landscape paintings
Mountain landscape is a type of landscape in which the main subject of the image is mountains, mountain peaks, mountain lakes, mountain rivers and mountain waterfalls.
Mountain landscape paintings
City landscape – a kind of landscape in which the main subject of the image are city streets, buildings.
Idyllic landscape Idyllic landscape – an idealized landscape, which tells about the perfection, harmony and fullness of life of ordinary people, their direct connections with nature.
The idyllic landscape is characterized by grazing herds, cool streams, trees with dense crowns, meadows, birds, ancient ruins, etc.
Claude Lorren is the founder of an idyllic landscape.
Open windows. Gomanyuk Leonid
Industrial landscape – the Soviet version of the urban landscape genre, which depicts the romance of the restoration of the national economy, the construction of large industrial facilities.
One of the founders of the industrial landscape trend is considered to be Konstantin Bogaevsky.
Industrial landscape paintings
The interior (derived from French intérieur – internal) is a type of landscape painting in which the subject of the image is the image of the interior view of the room.
Historical landscape – a landscape in which historical events are depicted using architectural and sculptural monuments associated with these events.
The historical landscape enlivens the past and gives it a certain emotional assessment.
Capriccio harbor at sunrise with fishermen, statue and city view. Marco ricci
Capriccio (derived from Italian. Capriccio, literally – a whim, whim) – an architectural landscape-fantasy.
The most famous painters writing capriccio: Francesco Guardi, Antonio Canaletto.
Cosmic landscape – the image of outer space, stars and planets, galactic landscapes, worlds of the future.
Pictures of space landscape
Romantic landscape Cosmopolitan landscape – a landscape in which the artist depicted an imaginary landscape in the Italian style.
Cosmopolitan landscapes were very popular in Holland in the 17th century.