Art criticism analysis and description of Pierre-Auguste Renoir’s “Nude” painting
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The history of the English landscape is a large and complex topic. And a special place in it is occupied by a talented artist - William Turner, whose deeply emotional…

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Batik (batik) – the Indonesian word (tik – in Indonesian means “dot” or “drop”, and ba – cotton fabric). Batik is the common name for a variety of methods and techniques of artistic painting on fabric. The art of making batik is based on the principle of redundancy, that is, applying a certain composition to the fabric, in order to preserve and highlight the colors of the pattern or background. Indonesia is traditionally called the homeland of batik, although fabric painting has long been used in Peru, Japan, Sri Lanka, Central Asia, Turkey, Egypt, Iran, Africa and Indochina. Then the batik was not just a beautiful pattern on the fabric, it was considered sacred and its patterns were used as a talisman. In Europe, batik gained fame at the beginning of the 20th century. Nowadays, batik is used in painting clothes, tablecloths, napkins, decorative pillows, sofa upholstery, bedspreads, curtains, screens, lampshades, wall panels, etc.

Hot batik. Straight layered

Hot batik can be made on cotton or silk. Wax was applied to the fabric with a pointed bamboo stick, and later with a brush or a special tool – chanting, which is a small copper cup with a nose attached to a wooden handle. The process begins by applying the contours of the future pattern to silk or a cotton cloth. The areas to be left unpainted are covered with a layer of molten wax, after which the fabric is painted. In the next step, the web is again waxed and stained. When using the hot batik technique, this procedure is repeated no more than four times, since with more frequent mixing of colors, the fabric begins to lose quality and color intensity. Thus, the fabric is dyed sequentially in different colors. Then the excess paint is removed, and the wax is evaporated with an iron. Since ancient times, fabric dyeing has been used to decorate and paint on fabrics using various reservation agents, such as a mixture of paraffin, wax, rosin or resin. Nowadays, hot wax is used and there are many techniques for applying it to batik: the reserve can be applied using brushes or simply by dripping onto a fabric.

There are three types of hot batik:

Direct single-layer – the pattern is created by fixing with molten wax white fabric and painted in one layer.
Multilayer straight – a picture is created by fixing with molten wax white fabric and is painted in several layers, each time saturating them in tone.
Reverse etching – the drawing is created by painting, followed by fixing the desired colors with wax and etching to white areas not covered with wax.
Cold batik differs from hot batik in that the reservation is carried out in a cold way. The backup composition may be colorless, but may also have any color. For painting using cold batik technique, a reserve based on paraffin and a gasoline solvent is used. The artistic feature of this method of painting is that the obligatory color contour gives the drawings a clear, graphic character. The reserve composition along the contour of the pattern is applied to the fabric using a glass tube of various diameters. In the technique of cold batik, unlike hot batik, natural silk is mainly used, but the first experiments can also be done on thin cotton fabric. Batik on silk is very well fixed by steaming. Then it can be washed and ironed, without fear that the paint will wash off or turn pale.

Cold batik. Watercolor technique

There are four types of cold batik:

Classic – a picture is created using a closed cold reserve and is painted in one layer.
Multilayer – a picture is created using a closed cold reserve and is painted in several layers.
Unclosed graphics – painted by the method of breaking the backup line and mixing colors of adjacent planes.
Free painting of the fabric – the pattern is created without the use of reserve mixtures. The drawing on the fabric with this method is applied with free strokes, and only final processing can sometimes be performed using the reserve. There are several ways to freely paint fabrics: paints using saline, paints with a thickener from the reserve, printing inks on fabrics, oil paints. All of the above methods of free painting require parking, except for painting with oil paints. However, this type of batik can not be steamed, but in the future it can not be washed and it is necessary to protect the surface from dropping water drops on it.
Free painting – performed in three techniques:
watercolor technique – batik is drawn raw with drying in the right places, or dry with special brushes;
stencil technique – batik is created using stencils and aerosol dye;
free painting – the fabric is impregnated with an aqueous solution of sodium chloride or watercolor, and after drying, painted with paints.

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Fine art techniques
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