TAPESTRY. CLASSIFICATION AND VARIETIES
The art of hand weaving is one of the oldest forms of decorative art. Each country and era made its changes in technology, interpretation of images and applied value of carpets and trellises. In different countries and at different times, carpets and trellises were called differently – they unite their similar technologies and materials used. Carpets spread more actively in the countries of the East, as this was facilitated by the way of life of people.
The earliest examples of artistic weaving were discovered in America in Peru at the turn of 2500 BC. In Western Europe, artistic weaving came from the Muslim East through Spain. The earliest one that has survived is considered to be a trellis, woven in the XI century by Rhine craftsmen. From the 12th-13th centuries, German masters developed trellis art and their work began to penetrate into Scandinavia. And from the end of the 14th century, trellis spread throughout Europe. Starting with the Raphael series of cardboards for the trellises of the Sistine Chapel, trellises are considered as works of art. Trellis has always been very expensive. A very interesting fact is known when a French prince was bought from a Turkish captivity for a series of trellises.
In the sixteenth century in Europe, wealthy customers decorated the walls with tapestries as wallpaper, leaving no empty spaces. So there were wall, over-door trellises. The unusual narrow format of some trellises is explained by the fact that they were designed for piers between windows.
Originally tapestries, woven lint-free carpets, called trellises. The term tapestry originated in France in the 17th century when the products of the Tapestry brothers manufactory began to be called tapestries.
Arrazi, Arezzi, Arras. Proposal of the heart. OK. 1410
Arratsi, Arezzi or Arras (from the English arras) – by the name of the city of Arras, in which in the 14th century the production of bright trellises using gold and silver threads flourished. Arras trellises are diverse in style, they are united by bright decorativeness, conventionality of depicted scenes and details, freedom from everyday realistic details.
In Poland and Italy, and now any lint-free carpets are called Arezzi or Arras.
Alentur – a kind of trellis with a landscape plot, in which the plot or allegorical image is in ornamented borders that mimic a wooden carved gilded frame.
Vandapate (from the Netherlands. – smooth wall-mounted carpet) – Brussels carpet. From the sixteenth century, Brussels vandapites have become the most popular throughout Europe. Brussels craftsmen have developed their own unique principle of weaving. The venue was distinguished by a special stylization of the face and clothes, as well as a narrow border that enclosed the plot of the carpet in a composite frame.
Verdura. Landscape with birds and animals of Verdure (from French verdure – greens, grass, foliage) – the 16th century was the name of images of animals and birds against the backdrop of nature, but soon this name was assigned to the very works of trellis weaving originating from Oudenaard, a center for the production of verdure with XVII century. Audenard tapestries were distinguished by specific colors, sustained in green, brown, blue-green and yellowish-cream colors and favorite scenes: birds and animals, trees and plants.
By the end of the XV century, thanks to the Renaissance, the landscape took a certain place in the trellises: in the gaps between the architectural details, in the form of a background in the background or small bushes, flowers in the foreground. At the same time, trellises entirely devoted to the landscape appear – they were called the French word for verdura.
Laubverk is a German variety of verdure – a decorative ornamental motif filled with leaves and shoots of oak, grapes, ivy. Used in the Middle Ages in Romanesque and Gothic buildings.
Milfler “Lady with the Unicorn” about 1500g.
Milfleurs (from the French – a thousand flowers) – carpets that were woven in France, in Touraine in the second half of the XV – beginning of the XVI centuries. A lot of growing or cut bouquets, flowers and berries are scattered on an indigo-green or red background of millefleurs. The floral background turned out to be convenient for many plots: allegorical, biblical, antique, taken from medieval literature and modern life. The level of miller’s weaving is different: from primitive, rough trellises of wandering weavers to masterfully performed in special masterpieces. Exquisite “Scenes from the life of seniors” include many subjects: playing music, embroidery, reading, walking, swimming, hunting and others. Each trellis features several characters. Their poses are conditional, static, as if the characters were posing for the artist. A blue background with flowers is presented as a natural landscape, with birds and small animals.
Skeet. Tapisseria Tapisseria (from the French. Tapiserie – wall upholstery) – carpet products, tapestries, carpets.
An offering to Bacchus. Tapestry from the Grotesque series on a yellow grotesque background (from the French – freaky)
In the 16th century, a new type of ornament, grotesque, began to develop in the tapestry art of France and Brussels.