COURSE CASES OF SALES OF PICTURES AT AUCTIONS
Today, no one can guarantee 100 percent authenticity of certain art objects. Auction house Sotheby's gives a guarantee on the authenticity of a work of art for two years. Often,…

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Frescoes in the slough
World painting boasts an impressive history of fakes. Such things have happened at all times and in all countries. And one of the funniest hoaxes happened half a century ago…

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LANDSCAPE GENRE VARIETIES
Landscape (from French paysage - country, locality) is a genre of fine art in which nature is the main subject of the image. As an independent genre, the landscape appeared…

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PRINT. CLASSIFICATION AND VARIETIES

An engraving (from French estampe) is a generalized name for works of printed graphics, which is an engraving or any other print on paper from a printing form.
There are four types of prints: high (convex) printing, flat printing, intaglio printing and screen printing.
Convex printing includes woodcut, linocut and cardboard engraving.
For flat printing – lithography with all its varieties and monotype.
For intaglio printing – engraving, etching, mezzo-tinto, dotted line, dry needle, aquatint, reserve, lavis, soft varnish, pencil style.
Screen printing – silk screen printing.

Let us consider in more detail the main print techniques in chronological order.

Engraving. Rialto Bridge
Engraving (from French gravure – cut, create relief) – a type of graphic art, implying the creation of printing forms in various ways. There are a huge number of engraving techniques: woodcut, linocut, cardboard engraving, etching, incisal engraving, mezzo-tinto, dotted line, dry needle, aquatint, reserve, lavis, soft varnish, pencil style.

Four Angels Hold the Winds 1498 Albrecht Durer
Woodcut (from Greek silo – wood) – woodcut. The technique of woodcutting originated in China. The earliest known woodcut sample dates from 868.
Until the end of the XVII century, woodcuts were done on the boards of longitudinal cut – cut (longitudinal) engraving. For edged engraving, a linden, plum or pear board is used for longitudinal cutting, the pattern is cut with cutters, chisels or a knife.
In the 1780s, the Englishman T. Buick came up with a frontal engraving. For face engraving, boards of cross cut from hard rocks of the Caucasian palm (boxwood) are used. The image is cut out with cutters of different configurations. After that, the board is coated with special paint and a print is made on paper. The number of high-quality prints from longitudinal planks is within a few hundred copies, from the front – tens of thousands of copies.

Screen printing. Childhood dream
Silkscreen printing, serigraphy (from lat. Seri – silk and Greek. Grafia – form, image) – a type of art screen printing. Silk screen printing appeared in China during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). This technology quickly spread to neighboring Asian countries. In Japan, for example, they developed this technology by combining it with woodcut and manual ink application. Silk screening appeared in Europe at the end of the 18th century, due to scarcity and high cost of silk, it was not widely used. The technology began to develop only after a high-quality and inexpensive substitute for silk was invented.
A silk screen screen template is made of silk mesh stretched over an aluminum or wooden frame. Zones without a pattern are covered with a material impenetrable to paints, resulting in a stencil. The screen is applied to the surface on which the image will be applied, then water or oil-based paint is added and a roller or squeegee is rolled with a special tool on the surface of the screen. Each color is fixed, and the print for a specific color is made separately only in those places where it is required. Unlike other printing techniques, the image is obtained in a non-mirror form. Silk screen printing allows you to get bright, colorful embossed images. Using silk-screen printing, you can print quality reproductions of paintings.

Cutting engraving, cutter. Icon and ax
Incisor engraving, incisor is the oldest type of engraving. Cutting engraving appeared due to the technology of decorating metal products with carvings. The appearance of this type of engraving dates back to the first half of the 15th century. From the 17th century, incisor engraving gradually began to be replaced by varieties of etching techniques. Until the end of the 19th century, the prerogative of incisor engraving was the performance of geographical maps, types of cities (leading), illustrations for scientific atlases and publications, as well as reproductions of paintings, sculptures and architectural monuments for art publications. These days it is used, in particular, for printing American dollar bills.
A smooth metal plate is carefully ground, then an image contour is applied. To obtain strokes and lines, shtiehel incisors of various sections, sections and shapes are used, the thinnest lines are applied with needles. Metal barbs – barbs that remain at the edges, are carefully cut with a scraper. Then the image is filled with thick paint. With the help of a leather swab, the paint is easily peeled off and remains only in in-depth places. To obtain prints, relatively thick, slightly glued paper is used: it, being wet, under strong pressure absorbs paint from the recesses of the board well. The print is characterized by a strict organization of lines and a clear modeling of the shape, the image is built using parallel or oblique grid lines. This technique is exceptionally laborious and has some limited artistic possibilities.

HISTORY OF ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ART OF ENAMEL
The history of enamel art, as well as jewelry, has more than three thousand years of history. When and where was the first enameling, i.e. colored glass in the molten…

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FROM HISTORY OF Fakes
From several biographical sources it is known that Michelangelo forged ancient Roman sculptures. He created a new marble sculpture, then smashed it, buried it in the garden and after some…

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TAPESTRY. CLASSIFICATION AND VARIETIES
The art of hand weaving is one of the oldest forms of decorative art. Each country and era made its changes in technology, interpretation of images and applied value of…

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Engraving: concept, essence
Engraving is the youngest of the visual arts. If the origin of painting, sculpture, drawing, architecture is lost in prehistoric epochs, then the appearance of engraving is more or less…

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