Fresco (derived from Italian. Fresco, literally – fresh) is one of the wall painting techniques. The painting is painted on wet plaster with paints diluted in water. When dried, a film forms on the surface that protects the mural, making it extremely durable. The fresco was already known during the Aegean culture (2 thousand years BC), but its heyday falls on the Renaissance. Artists of this era used multi-layer polished soils with the addition of marble dust. The outstanding masters of Renaissance fresco painting were Michelangelo and Raphael. In Christian culture, the fresco has become a favorite way of decorating the internal, and sometimes the external walls of the temple.
Today, any wall painting is called a fresco.
And secco (came from Italian. A secco – dry) – painted on dry plaster with paints rubbed on vegetable glue, an egg or tempera, oil or acrylic paints mixed with lime.
Buon fresco (derived from Italian. Buon fresco – “clean mural”) – a mural painted without admixture of tempera.
Sgraffito, or graffito (derived from Italian sgraffito or grafrito, literally scratched) is a special fresco painting in which the wall is covered first with black, then with white soil, and in the latter the drawing is scraped to black ground. This technique was used in ancient Greece in the manufacture of ceramics. Due to the strength of this technology, in the XV-XVII centuries in Italy sgraffito was widely used to decorate the outer walls of architectural structures.
Natural materials, such as stone and marble, have always been highly valued in wall decoration. They were used in the richest interiors. But the high cost, processing complexity and impractical qualities did not allow their wide use. The ingenious thought of the Roman architect Vitruvius gave this opportunity to both Renaissance masters and modern designers.
Venetian plaster, which includes marble and granite dust, slaked lime and dyes, allows you to create amazingly realistic imitation of textures. This interior decoration technique got its name for its wide distribution in the Renaissance Venice and in Malta, where palaces, castles and cathedrals were decorated with its help. Venice has clearly proved the durability, practicality and moisture resistance of Venetian plaster. Advances in the chemical industry in our time have added safety, environmental friendliness, and the ability to apply to almost any surface to these qualities of Venetian plaster.
Imitation of natural textures is not the only visual advantage of Venetian plaster. Covered with wax, it creates the effect of the depth of the picture and the translucency of the surface of the walls. Venetian plaster allows not only to create a continuous coating of walls, but also to enrich the interior with artistic images, as if coming out of the hands of a Renaissance artist.
Plaster soil is usually made up of 1 part of slaked lime, 2 parts of mineral fillers (quartz sand, limestone powder or crushed brick), sometimes with organic additives (straw, hemp, flax, etc.) that protect the soil from cracking. Also, milk and pumice, a substance of volcanic origin, were sometimes used in the soil.
PAINT FOR FRESSES
For the mural, paints that did not enter into chemical compounds with lime were used: natural earth pigments: ocher, umbra, Mars, blue and green cobalt, etc., less often paints of copper origin: stuffed cabbage, etc., vegetable: indigo and bakan, cinnabar . Blue and black are applied to already dried plaster with glue. The initial bright color of the paints fades when dried. The color also dims when using a large number of colorful layers. The binder of the paints in the wall painting was, in addition to pure lime, combining it with animal glue, casein (in the form of milk) or egg white, as well as glue in its pure form.