HISTORY OF PASTEL PAINTING
The word pastel comes from the Italian word pasta - dough or pasta. The pastel is colored crayons from a finely ground mixture of coloring pigment, chalk or a special…

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MODERN PORTRAIT EXCLIBRIS
Portrait bookplate - one of the oldest types of book characters - appeared after the stamp. The first engraved bookplate is considered the emblem of the knight Bernhardt von Rohrbach,…

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Engraving Techniques
But circulation is only one of the properties of engraving. Engraving is a special kind of fine art and it has its own language, its aesthetics, its capabilities, which are…

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COURSE CASES OF SALES OF PICTURES AT AUCTIONS

Today, no one can guarantee 100 percent authenticity of certain art objects.
Auction house Sotheby’s gives a guarantee on the authenticity of a work of art for two years.
Often, the quality of fakes exceeds the level of expertise.
A joke is popular among art historians: “… Do you guarantee that this picture is genuine? – Of course. The guarantee is two years …”

Sunflowers 4. Vincent van Gogh
Sunflowers Vincent Van Gogh.
The picture of the famous Dutchman “Sunflowers”, sold for almost $ 40 million at Christie’s auction, turned out to be a fake according to the results of an examination of Italian art historians. In their conclusions, the experts relied on the correspondence of Van Gogh with Gauguin and other friends. The fact is that in the period from 1888 to 1989, Van Gogh created several versions of this picture (according to the latest data – 10). After a scrupulous study of the letters, the scientists came to the conclusion that among the Wangogow canvases of this option there are no “Sunflowers”.
Gauguin wrote to Van Gogh several times that he really liked his “Sunflowers” and that he would like to contemplate them in his studio. After some time, he persuaded the master to give him for a while one of the paintings supposedly to enjoy the color scheme of the work. Soon the painting was returned to the author. A year after the death of Van Gogh, another version of his “Sunflowers” “surfaced”, previously unknown to anyone, “surfaced.” At that moment, the picture was in Claude-Emile Schaffenecker, a friend of Gauguin. If you take into account that Schaffenecker, as it turned out later, was selling fakes of paintings by the great artist, an interesting situation looms. Experts suggested that they studied the version of “Sunflowers” made from the original Gauguin.
It is worth noting that in fact the owners of “Sunflowers”, whose brush did not belong to the picture, lost almost nothing, since the works of Paul Gauguin cost not much less …

View paintings by Vincent Van Gogh
Vase with Flowers. Lilac. Paul Gauguin
A grand scandal in the art world, which led to the arrest of New York gallery owners, erupted in May 2000, when auction houses Sotheby and Christie published their spring catalogs of contemporary art for sale. It unexpectedly turned out that both houses offer potential buyers the same picture – Paul Gauguin’s “Flower Vase”.
Each house was sure that it was exhibiting the original, since all the supporting documents for these paintings by people who wished to auction Gauguin’s work were in perfect order. Both paintings were immediately taken to Paris for examination by the best connoisseur of the work of Gauguin Sylvia Krusssar. She compared the two “Vases with Flowers” and immediately noted that the picture offered at Christie’s auction was a fake.
But this is the best fake I’ve seen in my life, ”Krusssar admitted to the saddened representatives of Christie, who urgently recalled the spring catalog from print and told the bad news to the owners of the canvas that turned out to be fake. The owners of the Tokyo Muse Gallery were simply shocked.

View paintings by Paul Gauguin
Fake Boris Kustodiev Nude in the interior
The British Supreme Court is considering a lawsuit against the world famous auction house Christie, who is required to return money for a picture of Boris Oustiska, an artist by Boris Kustodiev, bought at an auction of Russian art, which turned out to be a fake.
Boris Kustodiev’s painting “Naked in the Interior”, featured in catalogs under the name “Odalisque” and written in 1919, was sold on November 30, 2005 at an auction of Russian art in London. She went for a record $ 2.9 million for those trades, more than seven times higher than the preliminary estimate.
The fact that Kustodiev’s painting is a fake, it became known in 2009. The canvas was published under the first issue in the next volume of the “Catalog of fakes of paintings” published under the auspices of Rosokhrankultura. The fact of fraud was confirmed by three authoritative Russian examinations made by specialists of the Grabar Scientific Restoration Center, the Russian Museum and the Tretyakov Gallery, and the first of the negative conclusions was made back in 2006.
The official Christie’s comment is: “We are aware of what conclusions were prepared for the buyer of the painting. We take all assumptions regarding the authenticity of a particular work sold at our auction very seriously and check it very carefully. Now, after that how the painting was returned to us, we conduct all the necessary examinations, including a detailed analysis of the materials and writing techniques. ”

View paintings by Boris Kustodiev
Van Gogh The head of a peasant woman. Left profile
Curiosity at the auction in Tokyo 02/08/2003.
Experts did not immediately recognize the picture of the famous Van Gogh and rated it at only $ 87. This work of the brush of the great master is known as the head of the peasant woman. Left profile.
For a long time, the painting was in the private collection of a Japanese artist, and after his death was put up for sale as the work of an unknown author.

Engraving: concept, essence
Engraving is the youngest of the visual arts. If the origin of painting, sculpture, drawing, architecture is lost in prehistoric epochs, then the appearance of engraving is more or less…

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BATIK. CLASSIFICATION AND VARIETIES
Batik (batik) - the Indonesian word (tik - in Indonesian means “dot” or “drop”, and ba - cotton fabric). Batik is the common name for a variety of methods and…

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Fine art techniques
Watercolor (from Italian. Aquarello) - means painting with water-based paints. Watercolor is one of the most difficult painting techniques. The apparent simplicity and ease of watercolor painting is deceiving. Watercolor…

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ANCIENT ENGLISH PAINTING, FAMOUS ENGLISH ARTISTS
Collectors of antique paintings are conservative in their passions. Of greatest interest are the Italian masters of the Renaissance, the old Dutch and German painters, French impressionists and some others.…

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