The Origin of Engraving in England.
Engraved English school is much younger than Italian, German or Dutch. The history of English engraving, apparently, should be from the end of the 15th century. The first known engravings are in the Mirror of the World book, published in Westminster in 1480 by the English first printer, William Kexton. The illustrations in the book are made using the technique of wood engraving.
Subsequently, other techniques spread in England – copper engraving, woodcut. However, all the oldest engravings of the island were exclusively illustrations for books, were made at a very mediocre level and did not represent independent artistic value. Continue reading
The Antwerp School is an art school that has existed for several centuries in the city of Antwerp, now Belgium.
Representatives of the Antwerp school: Joachim Patinir, Joos van Kleve, Herry met de Bles, Peter Cook van Alst, Peter Artsen, Peter Brueghel Sr., Cornelis Floris de Wrindt, Gillis van Koningsloe, Cornelis van Dahl, Jan Bruegel Sr., Jan Brueghel Jr., Bartolomeus Spranger, Tobias Verhacht, Abel Scott, Anthony More, Adrian Kay, Frans Floris, Jan van Hemessen, Jan Masseys, Quentin Masseys Jr., Adam van Noort, Joos de Momper, France Purbus Sr., France Purbo Otus Van Jr. Veen, Martin de Vos, Sebastian Wranks.
Antwerp School of Painting
Sower. Jean Francois Millet Continue reading
The stretcher serves as the basis for stretching the canvas. Subframes are of 2 types: modular (prefabricated, wedge) and deaf.
Modular (prefabricated, wedge) subframes can be bought in almost all art stores. They are sold in racks of 2 pieces (in increments of 5 cm in length) and cost a little more than deaf subframes.
Modular subframes have a huge advantage – their angles are not rigidly fixed and when the picture is sagging, the problem can be easily and quickly fixed at home – you just need to knock out the wedges (Figure No. 6). This must be done very carefully so as not to spoil the canvas with a hammer and not to drag it.
In deaf subframes, the corners are rigidly connected and if the canvas sags, it will have to be pulled. The Continue reading