The Origin of Engraving in England.
Engraved English school is much younger than Italian, German or Dutch. The history of English engraving, apparently, should be from the end of the 15th century. The first known engravings are in the Mirror of the World book, published in Westminster in 1480 by the English first printer, William Kexton. The illustrations in the book are made using the technique of wood engraving.
Subsequently, other techniques spread in England – copper engraving, woodcut. However, all the oldest engravings of the island were exclusively illustrations for books, were made at a very mediocre level and did not represent independent artistic value. Continue reading
The history of enamel art, as well as jewelry, has more than three thousand years of history. When and where was the first enameling, i.e. colored glass in the molten state is connected to metal, it is impossible to determine exactly. Higgins in the description of Greek and Roman jewelry mentions the earliest works with enamel.
For example, in Mycenae (Greece) metal objects were found with soldered glass plates painted in blue, made between 1425 and 1300gg. BC. These items can be considered the oldest of the known finds. From the 6th century BC e. Greeks systematically deposited enamel on gold jewelry.
On the island of Cyprus, flower-shaped pendants made using the technique of filigree enamel, made around Continue reading
An engraving (from French estampe) is a generalized name for works of printed graphics, which is an engraving or any other print on paper from a printing form.
There are four types of prints: high (convex) printing, flat printing, intaglio printing and screen printing.
Convex printing includes woodcut, linocut and cardboard engraving.
For flat printing – lithography with all its varieties and monotype.
For intaglio printing – engraving, etching, mezzo-tinto, dotted line, dry needle, aquatint, reserve, lavis, soft varnish, pencil style.
Screen printing – silk screen printing.
Let us consider in more detail the main print techniques in chronological order.
Engraving. Rialto Bridge
Engraving (from French gravure – cut, create relief) – a type of graphic art, implying the creation of printing forms in various ways. There are a huge number of engraving techniques: woodcut, linocut, cardboard engraving, etching, Continue reading