EUROPEAN PAINTING SCHOOLS
The Antwerp School is an art school that has existed for several centuries in the city of Antwerp, now Belgium. Representatives of the Antwerp school: Joachim Patinir, Joos van Kleve,…

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HOW TO TENSION CANVAS ON A FRAME
FRAME The stretcher serves as the basis for stretching the canvas. Subframes are of 2 types: modular (prefabricated, wedge) and deaf. Modular (prefabricated, wedge) subframes can be bought in almost…

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COURSE CASES OF SALES OF PICTURES AT AUCTIONS
Today, no one can guarantee 100 percent authenticity of certain art objects. Auction house Sotheby's gives a guarantee on the authenticity of a work of art for two years. Often,…

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pastel is colored

OIL PAINT

Artistic paints consist of colored powder – a pigment and a binder that holds together the smallest particles. In painting, mainly inorganic coloring materials are used, as more persistent, less often organic.
There are pigments of natural origin and prepared artificially.
In ancient times, artists used exclusively dyes found in nature in the form of various minerals: malachite, azurite, auripigment, lapis lazuli (lapis lazuli) and all kinds of colored earths. In addition, they used dyes of organic origin, which were obtained from various plants and simple animal organisms – mollusks, worms.

But over time, many natural pigments were replaced by artificial ones. For example, blue ultramarine paint, which was valued more than gold (it was obtained from lapis lazuli minerals), was replaced in the 19th century by cheap artificial ultramarine.
Of the natural dyes, only earthy pigments have retained their value. They are usually mined when developing open pits. The produced rocks are dried, crushed and subjected to separation, separating the smallest particles. These pigments are durable, resistant to weathering, to light. They have not bright, but the most Continue reading

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The basis for painting is any physically existing material or surface on which paints are applied: metal, wood, fabric, paper, brick, stone, plastic, vellum paper (thin parchment, wax, tracing paper), parchment, plaster, glass. However, only a few of them represent the traditional foundations for oil painting; They are divided into two groups: elastic (flexible) substrates, which include canvas and paper, and rigid, combining wood, sheet fiberboard, fiberboard, canvas on cardboard (board) and metal.
The most popular and widely used base is canvas. However, the status of the canvas as a standard basis for painting is relatively young. Ancient artists preferred to work in encaustic on wooden foundations, and in the Middle Ages this practice gave impetus to the development and use of egg tempera on boards – the primary and most important form of easel painting of that time. In the fifteenth century, at the initial stages of evolution, oil painting existed as a way to refine or – the final stage of tempera technology: the main focus was still on small things with careful detailing. Such paintings by Flemish artists, for example, preferred to paint in oil on primed wooden boards. Continue reading

HISTORY OF PASTEL PAINTING

The word pastel comes from the Italian word pasta – dough or pasta. The pastel is colored crayons from a finely ground mixture of coloring pigment, chalk or a special type of clay and a gum arabic binder.
Pastel occupies an intermediate position between painting and drawing. From a technological point of view, pastel is a graphic, and by its expressive capabilities, pastel can be attributed to painting.
Pastel crayons, consisting of dry colorful pigment bonded with acacia resin (gum arabic), was invented at the end of the 15th century by French artist Jean Perreal for quick sketches of the military company of Louis XI.
The artist introduced the new technique to Leonardo da Vinci, who named the new technique colorire a secco (dry-painted) and used it in a sketch for a portrait of Isabella d’Este Mantua (1499).
At the beginning of the XVI century, pastel took a strong place in European art life. At this time, a French pencil portrait was very popular, performed from nature with black chalk, sanguine and pastel in one or two sessions. The Italians called this combination of art materials a pastello. Continue reading

ABOUT AQUARIAN PAINTING TECHNIQUE
Despite the availability and prevalence, the watercolor technique remains mysterious and incomprehensible to many, both amateurs and professional artists. Despite the apparent lightness, this material, which is natively associated with…

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Linocut
Linocut got its name from linoleum material. Linoleum as a material for engraving originated in Europe, and at the beginning of the first decade of the 20th century in Russia.…

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TIPS FOR DEVELOPING AQUARIUS TECHNOLOGY
What does an inquisitive artist need to know in mastering the watercolor technique in order to avoid the wrong path? And are there any special secrets of watercolor craftsmanship? The…

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ENGLISH AQUAREL, PAINTING OF OLD MASTERS
Watercolor is often called the most moody and unpredictable technique. This is due to many nuances of the behavior of water-based paints. An artist inexperienced in watercolor painting, even observing…

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